Know about Kidney disorders


Kidney plays a vital role in maintaining the body’s normal state there are two kidneys in the human body  the Nephron is the basic functional unit of the kidney

The kidney are the main organ of the body through which nitrogenous waste are excreted in the form of urea in a normal healthy human being the kidney filter about 150-180 litres in 24 hrs while only about 1-2 litres of urine is eliminated from the body kidney is a very efficient filter and it has many functions.

Know about kidney disorders:


Filteration: The kidneys are the filter through which all dissolved subs gas and selectively absorb those to retained. The end products of protein metabolism such as creatinine, urea vice acid etc are removed from the blood by filteration and are discarded in urine.

Maintenance of fluid electrolyte balance: Ions from the blood are secreted  in the urine to maintain the acid – base balance. In this process they monitor the composition & volume of blood and other body fluids. Kidneys maintain fluid & electrolyte balance by selective filteration.

Excretion: The kidney excrete  dissolved unwanted substances filter out of the blood as urine.

They help to regulate B.P levels

Kidneys produce a hormone known as erythropoietin which stimulates maturation of RBC`s in the bone marrow.

    When kidney function is distributed due to disease or injury all the above functions are effected.

 Biochemical analysis (Kidney function test):

  • Measurement of plasma concentration of urea & creatinine :    

  Blood urea – males    15-40 mg/dl

                       Females  10-30 mg/dl

  • Serum creatinine should not be more than 1.4 mg/dl

  For  Males –     > 1.4 mg/dl

         Females –  > 1.3 mg/dl

  • GFR – Glomurular filteration range


Where, U –creatinine concentration in urea

V –volume of urine excreted in 1 min

P- Creatnine concentration in plasma

The normal  GFR is 100 -125 ml/min

  • Potassium and phosphate levels will increase in plasma when there is kidney failure.
  • Renal disfunction increases alkaline phosphotase as vitamin -D synthesis is effected.
  • Volume of urine may be increased, decreased or normal at different stages of acute & chronic renal failure
  • Abnormal urinary constituents  like blood or protein may be present in urine when kidneys fail to function
  • In disorders of renal tubules excess loss of Na ,K & Mg can occur.


It is an inflammatory disease of the glomeruli, it is most common in its acute form in children b/w 3 to 10 years of age. It can also occur in adults, past the age of 50


  • Hematuria
  • Proteinuria

Causes :-

  1. Nephropathy
  2. Heriditory nephrites
  3. Metallic poisoning
  4. Oedema 
  5. Shortness of breath 
  6. Elevated BP level
  7. Anorexia ,nausea & vomiting

In advance stage oliguria (Scanty urine ) or anuria  (No urine ) may develop.

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *