Fermented and non-fermented milk products

Fermented and non-fermented milk products:

Fermented milk products are as follows:

  • Butter:
  • Butter is a mixture of milk fat, buttermilk and water.
  • The fat content of butter is generally about 80%.
  • The non -fat components of butter consist of moisture, milk solids not fat and salt if added.
  • Most of the butter produced in our country is converted to ghee.
  • Cheese:
  • Cheese is milk curd and made of casein.
  • The varieties of cheese are differentiated according to their flavour, body and the texture which in turn depends upon the type of the milk used, manufacturing and processing methods adopted, salts and seasoning added, and the type of bacteria and mould species used in ripening.
  • Paneer:
  • Un-ripened cheese is called paneer.
  • Paneer is made at home by adding curd to boiling milk.
  • Curd:
  • This is India’s most used milk product and 7% of milk produced is used for curd.
  • Nutritive value almost remains the same during curd making.
  • The digestibility is better when compared to ordinary milk.
  • Calcium and phosphorous content of curd is more easily assimilated.
  • Curd contains more B – vitamins than milk.

Fermented and non-fermented milk products:

Non fermented milk products

  • Skim milk:
  • Fat content is reduced to 0.5 – 2% by centrifugation.
  • By removing fat from the milk not only taste or flavour is reduced but fat-soluble vitamins like vitamin – A and Vitamin D are reduced.
  • Skim milk is used for low calorie diets and for children who need high protein.
  • Evaporated milk:
  • This is the milk from which about 50 to 60% of the water has been evaporated. Raw milk is clarified and concentrated in a vacuum pan at a temperature of 74 to 77 ֯Celsius.
  • It is fortified with vitamin D, homogenised, sterilised in cans at a temperature of 118 ֯Celsius for 15 minutes and cooled.
  • This heat treatment gives evaporated milk a light brown colour owning to sugar protein interaction and its characteristic flavour.
  • Dry milk:
  • Dry milk can be made with whole milk or skimmed milk.
  • Milk powder can be dehydrated to about 97% by spray drying and vacuum drying.
  • Good shelf life without refrigeration of dry milk makes it a valuable milk product.
  • Milk powder can be reconstituted into fluid milk.
  • Sweetened condensed milk:
  • Sweetened condensed milk unlike evaporated milk is not sterile.
  • Multiplication of microorganisms in the product is prevented by the preservation action of sugar.
  • The product is made from pasteurised milk that is concentrated and sweetened with sucrose.
  • Sugar concentration is about 65% and this milk cannot be substituted for the ordinary fresh milk for children.
  • Khoya:
  • Khoya is semi solid obtained from milk by evaporating it in open pans.
  • Milk is cautiously stored in a circular motion to prevent scorching.
  • After cooling it becomes solid. The yield is about 20% of the weight of the milk used with cottage cheese.
  • There is a decrease in vitamin A and some water-soluble vitamins of milk during this formation.
  • It is used in the preparation of Gulab jamun, carrot halwa and coconut burfi.
  • Ice cream:
  • It is a frozen dairy product consisting of whole milk skim milk cream, butter, condensed milk products or dried milk products.
  • Milk fat and milk solids constitute about 60% of the total solids of the ice cream.
  • These components give ice cream a rich flavour, improved body and texture
  • Standardised milk:
  • In standardised milk, the fat content is maintained at 4.5%.
  • It is prepared from the mixture of Buffalo milk and skim milk.
  • Sterilised milk:
  • Standardised cows or buffaloes milk sterilised in bottles by heating continuously to a temperature of 115 ֯Celsius for 15 minutes to ensure destruction of all microorganisms and preservation at room temperature for not less than 85 days from the date of manufacturing. It shall be sold only in the container in which milk was sterilised.
  • Cream:
  • Milk fat separated from milk by centrifugation is called cream.
  • The high percentage of fat helps to give a more stable form.
  • Cream is also used in baked products and as well as salad dressings.
  • Colostrum:
  • The milk from newly calved animals has high acidity and rich in protein and carotenoids.

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