CLASSIFICATION OF DIETS
Diets are classified into 4 types. They are as follows –
- Clear fluid
- Soft diet
- Full fluid
- Regular normal diet
Classification of diets:
Clear fluid diet: Whenever an acute illness or surgery produces a marked intolerance for food which may be evident by nausea ,vomiting anorexia and diarrhoea . It is advisable to restrict the intake of food
Clear fluid diet is suggested in the following conditions:
- Acute illness or infection
- Following operation upon colon or rectum when it is desirable to prevent evacuation from bowel
- To relieve thirst
- To supply tissues with water
- To act in the removal of gas
This diet is made up of clear liquids that leaves no residue, non irritating and non stimulating. This diet is inadequate from nutritional stand point since it is deficient in proteins, vitamins, minerals & calories. It should not be continued for more than 24-48 hrs. The amount of fluid is usually restricted to 30-60ml/hr at first with gradually increasing the amounts being given as the patient’s tolerance improves. This diet gives 300 kcal and no protein. This diet can meet the requirement of fluids & some minerals.
Full fluid diet: This diet bridges the gap between clear fluid & soft diet. It is used following operations, in acute gastritis, acute infections & in diarrhoea. This diet is also suggested when milk is permitted & for patients not requiring special diet but too ill to eat solid or semi solid food.
In this diet foods which are liquid or which readily become liquid on reaching the stomach are given. This diet may be made entirely adequate & may be used over an extended time without fear of developing deficiencies, provided it is carefully planned. This diet is given at 2-4 hours intervals. This diet gives 1200 kcal & 35g of proteins.
Soft diet: This diet is one of the most frequently used routine diet. Many patients are placed on this until a diagnosis is made. It bridges the gap between acute illness & convalescent. It may be used in acute infections, following surgery, for patients who are unable to chew. The soft diet is made up of simple easily digested food & contains no harsh fibre, low in fat & no highly seasoned foods. It is nutritionally adequate. Patients with dental problems are given mechanically soft diet. In this diet 3 meals with intermediate feeding should be given. This diet gives 1500 kcal & 35-40 g of proteins. Regular normal diet: It is most frequently used in all the hospitals. It is used for ambulatory & bed patients whose condition does not necessitate a special diet. The regular hospital diet is simple in character & preparation, easy to digest & calculated to afford max nourishment with min effort to the body. It gives 1800 – 2000 kcal & 40 – 45 grams of protein.