All about vitamins:

Vitamins are substances that our bodies need to develop and function normally. They include vitamins A, C, D, E, and K, choline, and the B vitamins


Vitamins are essential, non-caloric, organic micronutrients. There is energy contained in the chemical bonds of vitamin molecules, but our bodies don’t make the enzymes to break these bonds and release their energy; instead, vitamins serve other essential functions in the body.


They are generally classified as water-soluble and fat-soluble vitamins.

1. Fat-Soluble :

Vitamin A, D, E and K are fat-soluble. These are stored in adipose tissues and hence are called fat-soluble vitamins.

2. Water-Soluble:

Vitamins in B-group and vitamin C are water-soluble and cannot be stored in our bodies as they pass with the water in urine. These vitamins must be supplied to our bodies with regular diets.


Based on their role in biological processes and their effect different vitamins have different functions, their function can be best understood by knowing about their deficiency diseases. Given below is the list of vitamins and their deficiency diseases:

  1. Vitamin A – Hardening of the cornea in eye, night blindness.
  2. Vitamin B1 – Deficiency may cause beriberi, dwarfism.
  3. Vitamin B2 – Deficiency can cause disorders in the digestive system, skin burning sensations, cheilosis.
  4. Vitamin B6 – Deficiency of B6 causes convulsions, conjunctivitis, and sometimes neurological disorders.
  5. Vitamin B12 – Its deficiency can cause pernicious anemia and a decrease in red blood cells in haemoglobin.
  6. Vitamin C – It is a water-soluble vitamin, its deficiency causes bleeding in gums and scurvy.
  7. Vitamin D – It is obtained by our body when exposed to sunlight. Its deficiency causes improper growth of bones, soft bones in kids, rickets.
  8. Vitamin E – Deficiency of vitamin E leads to weakness in muscles and increases the fragility of red blood cells.
  9. Vitamin K – It plays an important role in blood clotting. The deficiency of vitamin K increases the time taken by the blood to clot. Severe deficiency may cause death due to excessive blood loss in case of a cut or an injury.


Water soluble –

B-1 : Ham, soymilk, watermelon, acorn squash

B-2 : milk, yogurt, cheese, whole and enriched grains and cereals.

B-3 : Meat, poultry, fish, fortified and whole grains, mushrooms,potatoes.

B-5: chicken, whole grains, broccoli, avocados, mushrooms

B-6: meat, fish, poultry, legumes, tofu and other soy products, bananas.

B-7: Whole grains, eggs, soybeans, fish

B-9: Fortified grains and cereals, asparagus, spinach, broccoli, legumes (black-eyed peas and chickpeas), orange juice.

B-12: Meat, poultry, fish, milk, cheese, fortified soymilk and cereals

Vitamins C : Citrus fruit, potatoes, broccoli, bell peppers, spinach, strawberries, tomatoes, Brussels sprouts

Fat soluble:

Vitamin A: beef, liver, eggs, shrimp, fish, fortified milk, sweet potatoes, carrots, pumpkins, spinach, mangoes

Vitamin D: Fortified milk and cereals, fatty fish

Vitamin E: vegetables oils, leafy green vegetables, whole grains, nuts.

Vitamin K: Cabbage, eggs, milk, spinach, broccoli, kale

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